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Analysis of Graduate Legal Education at the University of California

    Analysis of Graduate Legal Education at the University of California
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Summary of "Legal Analysis of California AB 2943"


Core Provisions and Implications of AB 2943

AB 2943 broadly prohibits specific speech related to sexual orientation and gender identity. Key implications include:

  • Counseling Restrictions: Licensed counselors are barred from assisting individuals with unwanted same-sex attraction or gender identity confusion.
  • Impact on Religious Ministries and Bookstores: There could be limitations on discussions or materials challenging gender identity ideology.
  • Restrictions on Pastors and Speakers: Discussions at events about overcoming same-sex desires or gender identity issues could be prohibited.

The bill enforces these prohibitions in transactions like counseling payments, conference fees, book sales, or speaking engagements.

Overview of AB 2943

AB 2943 modifies the California Consumer Legal Remedies Act by adding "sexual orientation change efforts" (SOCE) to its list of illegal practices. The vague language of the bill leads to a wide range of outlawed activities, including counseling, written materials, and public speaking on these topics.

Constitutional Concerns

  • Content and Viewpoint Regulation: The bill potentially regulates speech based on content and viewpoint, a practice often ruled impermissible by the Supreme Court.
  • Burden on Free Exercise of Religion: It may burden individuals seeking counseling for religious reasons and appear to target religious beliefs about sexuality and gender.
  • Violation of Right to Receive Information: The bill restricts the right to receive counseling and information on certain aspects of sexual orientation and gender identity.
  • Impact on Counseling Relationship: It might conflict with the fundamental right to self-determination by limiting discussions in counseling sessions.

Potential Outcomes and Implications

Enactment of AB 2943 may lead to legal challenges due to allegations of viewpoint discrimination, content-based speech regulation, and infringement on religious freedoms. The analysis suggests the bill's unconstitutionality, potentially impacting the liberty of patients and parents in therapy choices.


The analysis concludes that AB 2943 is likely unconstitutional, discriminating against specific viewpoints and infringing on free speech, religious exercise, and the right to receive counseling. The bill raises significant concerns about limiting personal liberty and expression in sexual orientation and gender identity counseling matters.