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The Communist Manifesto


Manifesto of the Communist Party

By Karl Marx and Frederick Engels


Main Content

I. Bourgeois and Proletarians

A central thesis is that all human history is a history of class struggles, focusing on the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie's rise, stemming from feudal societies, was marked by significant economic and social transformations, largely driven by industrialization and global trade expansion.

II. Proletarians and Communists

This section delves into the consequences of the bourgeoisie's rise, primarily the creation of the proletariat. Workers, treated as commodities in a capitalist economy, face exploitation and alienation, leading to increased dissatisfaction and potential for revolt.

III. Socialist and Communist Literature

Marx and Engels categorize and critique various forms of socialism, such as feudal, petty-bourgeois, and critical-utopian socialism. They evaluate each form's relationship with the proletarian movement and the bourgeoisie.

IV. Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties

The manifesto outlines the communists' stance in the broader political landscape, advocating support for movements that challenge the existing social order but always with the aim of advancing proletarian interests.

Key Themes

  1. Revolutionary Role of the Bourgeoisie: The bourgeoisie's role in dismantling feudal structures and initiating the capitalist era, characterized by rapid technological advancements, globalization, and societal changes.

  2. Emergence and Role of the Proletariat: The growth of the proletariat in parallel with the bourgeoisie, highlighting their exploitation under capitalism and potential for revolutionary action.

  3. Critique of Capitalism and Its Crises: A critical examination of capitalism's inherent tendencies toward crises and overproduction, potentially leading to its downfall.

  4. Communism as a Unifying Force: The portrayal of communism as a transnational movement uniting proletarians against the bourgeoisie and the capitalist system.


The "Manifesto of the Communist Party" serves as a call to action for the proletariat, emphasizing the need for a revolutionary overthrow of the bourgeoisie to establish a communist society free of class distinctions. It remains an influential political text, shaping the understanding of capitalist society's historical and class dynamics.